Syntactic functions in English language

Bài học này sẽ trình bày về các chức năng cú pháp trong tiếng Anh. Các bạn sẽ biết được chức năng của từng thành phần trong câu tiếng Anh như chủ ngữ, vị ngữ, bổ ngữ, tân ngữ..

1.    The subject:

a.    Definition: The subject is a part of sentence controlling the predicate
–    She is a night- bird ( sex worker)
–    Captain Cook discovered Australia in 1776
–    The people I like best never forget my birthday
b.    The subject can be expressed by means of single word, a noun, a pronoun, a noun phrase or even a clause.
•    A single word:
–    Man is an emotional creature
–    I love her
•    A phrase
–    The young girl with long hair walked confidently across the room
–    What to do with money drove him mad
–    Learning English enables many people to make some social advancement
–    His taking her to Halong last week does not matter to me.
(Việc anh ấy đưa cô ta đi Hạ Long không là gì đối với tôi)
•    A clause:
–    That coffee grown in brazil is famous to all
–    That he took her to Cua Lo last week always puzzles me
–    Whether he gets the money does not matter to me
–    Why the Minister committed suicide made the first headline on many newspapers.
–    “That” clause is used to express idea already clearly understood or clearly seen, this pattern can be rendered into Vietnamese as: “Cái việc mà…..”
–    “Whether” clause is used to express idea in doubt and this pattern can be rendered into Vietnamese as: “Liệu……”
–    “wh – “ clause including “ how” is used to express the ideas of interrogative meaning
–    Why the letter he wrote to me has not come makes me disappointed.

2.    The predicate

Is a part of the sentence controlled by the subject
–    She is a teacher
–    He loves me

3.    The complement

Complement is a part of the sentence usually stand after the link Verb or copular (Động từ nối), giving information about the subject or object.
–    She looks happy ( look là link verb)
–    She is a dancer
Link verb is the verb that can go with the adjectives : appear, become, come, feel, get, go, happen, keep, look, loom, prove, rank, remain, rest, seem, sound, stay, taste, grow, leave off, lie, run, smell, turn, turn out…
–    He always gets angry with me
–    The station seemed a very small one
–    He looks Vietnamese
–    He fell heir to a large state (fell = has become)
–    The cow run / gone into the barn (run / gone ở đây là full verb ” động từ thực” chứ không phải là link Verb)
In the English language there are 2 types of complements: the subject complement, the object complement
3.1    Subject complement
Can be expressed by a word, phrase, a clause
•    By a word:
–    He is good
–    The students always act dumb
•    By a phrase
–    A bird is a flying animal
–    She seems an honest person
•    By a clause
–    Our duty is that we must finish the problem
3.2    Object complement
Can be expressed by a Word, phrase, a clause
•    By a Word:
–    He pushes the door open
–    They have proved me wrong
–    He likes his coffee strong
–    She called me names
•    By a phrase:
–    I found what he said to mean nothing
–    I found her in tear.
–    He made her so happy before
–    I saw her walking down the street
•    By a Clause
–    I tell them what to do
–    I named my son what my father named me

4.    The Object

a.    Definition
Object is a part of sentence denoting the receiver of an action
–    He hit me last night
An object is normally a noun, a pronoun, a phrase, it usually goes after the verb in the active voice and it can become the subject of a verb in the passive voice
Notes: Object can be divided into 3 types:
–    Direct object
–    Indirect object
–    Prepositional object
a.    Direct object
Refer to the person or thing affected by the action of the verb. It comes immediately after a transitive verb (ngoại động từ)
–    He kicked the dog
–    Mary bought some ice-creams
b.    Indirect object
Usually refer to the person who” benefits) from the action expressed in the verb.
–    My mother gives me some money

–    My man bought me some flowers

–    I kissed her right in this room last night

c.    Prepositional Object
(Trong câu nếu tân ngữ gián tiếp đứng sau tân ngữ trực tiếp thì ở giữa 2 tân ngữ phải có giới từ (Tân ngữ gián tiếp mang giới từ)

–    They gave a lot of things to her in her birthday.
–    In the scene she is bring a cup of tea to her boy friend

 Chú ý: Certain verbs must have “to” or “for” with the direct object .The “to” or “for” usually comes after the direct object. Some of the most common of these verbs are:

Object can be expressed by mean of single word( noun or a pronoun), a noun phrase, a clause.
•    By single word
–    I study English
–    I love her
–    She studies Chinese
•    By a phrase
–    He loves a girl with blue eyes
–    He drink coffee with sugar
–    She does not know what to do with the money
–    He lives a humble life ( anh ấy sống một cuộc sống nghèo khó)
•    By a clause
–    Nobody understands why the minister committed suicide
–    He suggested that we should have a picnic at Halong
–    I want to know whether she will come with me./

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